by Tony Nette
The sale of bear gallbladders is still permitted in Nova Scotia. However, the Province now requires that galls are registered with and sealed by the Department of Lands and Forestry . This new regulation can best be understood within the context of the history of bear management in Nova Scotia.
The only bear species found in Nova Scotia is the American Black Bear (Ursus americanus). From the time of the first European settlers until very recently, it has been considered a threat to agriculture, property and human beings. From 1909 until 1966, there were a number of bounties on bears in Nova Scotia. At times during that period, these included both a provincial and a municipal bounty. During the bounty years, records indicate annual harvests of between 139 and 409 animals. Although the bounty was lifted in 1966, many Nova Scotians continue to look upon the black bear as a destructive pest.
Between 1966 and 1988, the animal enjoyed little protection. During this period, estimated annual harvests rose to as high as 882 bears. (See Figure 1) In addition to kills associated with protection of property, any person having a big game license, (i.e. up to 95,500 deer hunters), could kill an unlimited number of bears. As well, trappers could obtain a permit at no cost which entitled them to the same freedom.
During the late 1970's and early 1980's, there was growing concern about the sustainability of these high harvest levels. In addition, hunters continued to insist that bears be afforded greater protection and be recognized as a valued big game animal. These management concerns resulted in the implementation of new regulations in 1988 that have remained in place until now. They include:
These regulations effectively changed the taking of bears from a relatively free, unlimited activity to a hunt that requires pre-planning and an investment of time and money. As a result, those truly serious about hunting or snaring bears can now be counted and identified, as well as required to submit information and specimens helpful to the management of the species.
In 1992-93, the Nova Scotia Wildlife Federation (NSWF - an umbrella sporting organization) requested that consideration be given to a spring hunt. Part of DNR's decision-making process was to gain public input. It quickly became an emotionally charged debate, with those opposed to hunting at one extreme and bear hunting enthusiasts at the other. A poorly informed general public watched the debate intensify. The process attracted much media attention and raised the awareness of bear hunting. Although the idea of a spring hunt was rejected, the debate generated numerous inquiries about bear hunting to both DNR and NSWF. In the following years, hunting and snaring license sales and the corresponding harvest increased substantially. (See Table 1)
Although other minor regulation changes have been made since 1988, it was not until 1996 that the bear gall sealing program was introduced. This was done after international attention was drawn to Nova Scotia as one of the three remaining Canadian jurisdictions still permitting the sale of bear gallbladders. The Department of Lands and Forestry received many questions, concerns and objections on the issue. DNR's philosophy has always been that, "If an animal has been legally taken, the person doing so is encouraged to make full use of that animal." Since the bear harvest was at a sustainable level, the Department's main concern was ensuring that Nova Scotia's management regulations did not impact on the management objectives of other jurisdictions. It was ultimately concluded that disallowing the sale of galls could impact other jurisdictions, as could continuing the loosely regulated sale of galls.
At about the same time, (February 1996) the World Wildlife Fund Canada sent a number of recommendations to a meeting of Canadian government agencies. One of the recommendations was, "In provinces where the sale of bear parts is legal, mandatory marking, registration and recording systems be implemented in order to monitor the legal trade."
Consequently, DNR decided to implement a sealing and recording program to allow the continued sale of galls. This would also ensure minimal impact on the population management of other jurisdictions.
The regulations' main points are:
By summer of 1997, most galls taken during the previous fall's hunt had been sold and exported - records indicate that 167 galls were sealed by July, of which three were done by DNR for demonstration/educational purposes. A small number of these were galls held over from the fall of 1995. The number of bears harvested during the fall of 1996 was 291.
The administration of these sealing regulations requires additional time by Department staff. However, they allow the continued full use of legally taken bears. The program's effectiveness, as well as harvest levels and the status of Nova Scotia's bear population will continue to be monitored.