Nova Scotia Archives

Mi'kmaq Holdings Resource Guide

Peace and Friendship Treaties at the Nova Scotia Archives

The First Nations and colonial treaties of the early 18th century grew out of the global struggle between France and England. The fight to control eastern North America spilled into relationships each side had with local First Nations who were the original peoples of the land. In December 1725, Governor William Dummer of Massachusetts initiated the first of a number of treaties of peace and friendship between the Crown and several First Nations. This process led to a further treaty between the Mi’kmaq Nation leaders and the Nova Scotia colonial authorities, which was signed in 1726*. Additional treaties or ratifications were signed in 1727 and 1728 to confirm the inclusion of most parties.

The Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle (1748) ended a European war between England and France. This led in 1749 to the expansion of British settlement beyond Annapolis Royal (originally Port- Royal), with the establishment of a British military presence at Kjipuktuk (now Halifax). Shortly afterwards a renewal and affirmation of the 1725 treaty was entered into by the Mi'kmaq Nation and the newly established government at Kjipuktuk. First Nations leaders from the Saint John River also came to renew the 1725 treaty.

Despite these actions, hostilities between colonists and the Mi'kmaq Nation still occurred, as the young colony continued to move forward and press for additional land. An additional treaty of peace was signed in November 1752. It reaffirmed earlier treaties, called for an end to hostilities, and contained provisions regarding hunting, fishing and trading.

Ultimately, peace did not prevail. Local disturbances coincided with the start of the Seven Years’ War and led to the Deportation of the Acadians, beginning in 1755. A consequence was the destruction of the French and Mi'kmaq nation-to-nation relationship and the need to end hostilities between the British and the Mi’kmaq.

Starting in February 1760 and extending into 1761 a number of separate signings of similar but different treaties between the British and the Mi'kmaq Nation occurred. These treaties affirmed that peace would prevail, and the Mi’kmaq would continue to be able to assert their traditional trading rights.

Following the peace of 1763, a Royal Proclamation was issued, setting out guidelines for European settlement across British North America, while limiting the power of the colonies to encroach upon First Nations’ land. The document was published in Halifax in January 1764, and distributed to all the North American colonies.

The situation in New England at the start of the American War of Independence led the colonial authorities to renew relationships with the Mi'kmaq Nation in order to guarantee their allegiance during the conflict. Consequently, agreements were signed in 1778 at Fort Howe* (now Saint John) and in 1779 at Windsor. Over time, however, a long period of denial set in regarding the contents of the treaties, and continued well into the 20th century.


* No copies of these two treaties exist at the Nova Scotia Archives.


Results 1 to 12 of 12 from your search: AR5



Mikmaq201605000

Treaty of 1725 for Ratification at Annapolis Royal
Date: 1725
Reference no.: Peace and Friendship Treaties Nova Scotia Archives O/S No. 511

Signed in Boston, 15 December 1725, by J. Willard, Secretary of the General Court or Assembly of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, and various leaders from First Nations in Nova Scotia and New England.

This is an original document. Other copies of the original can be found at the National Archives (London UK) in the Colonial Office Papers, CO 217, Vol. 4, No. 349.

The final clause of the treaty states that it "shall be ratified at Annapolis Royal," which took place on 4 June 1726. No copies of that ratification exist at the Nova Scotia Archives.

Transcript is from W. E. Daugherty, Maritime Indian treaties in historical perspective (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1981); Treaty No. 239 in their numbered treaty series.


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Mikmaq201605001

1727 Ratification at Casco Bay of the Treaty of 1725
Date: 1727
Reference no.: Peace and Friendship Treaties Nova Scotia Archives O/S No. 513

Signed at Casco Bay (near Portland, Maine), 25 July 1727, by the Lieutenant Governors of New Hampshire and Massachusetts Bay, Paul Mascarene (representing Nova Scotia), and representatives of the Arresaguntacook, Wawenock, Norridgewock, and Penobscot.

This is an original document.

A reproduction was included in Thomas B. Akins, editor, Selections from the public documents of the Province of Nova Scotia (Halifax, 1869).

Transcript published in Nathaniel Bouton, compiler and editor, Provincial papers, documents and records, relating to the Province of New Hampshire, from 1722-1737 (New Hampshire Historical Society, Vol. 4, 1870).


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Mikmaq201605003

1728 Ratification at Annapolis Royal of the Treaty of 1725
Date: 1728
Reference no.: Peace and Friendship Treaties Nova Scotia Archives O/S No. 511

Signed at Annapolis Royal, 13 May 1728, by "Chiefs & others of the St. Johns Cape Sables & other Tribes... inhabiting... Nova Scotia or Acadie," and witnessed by the Governor, officers of the Garrison, and others.

This is an original document, written on the reverse of the Treaty of 1725 for Ratification at Annapolis Royal.

Transcript is from W. E. Daugherty, Maritime Indian treaties in historical perspective (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1981); Ratification of Treaty No. 239 in their numbered treaty series.


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Mikmaq201605004

1749 Renewal at Chebucto of the Treaty of 1725
Date: 1749
Reference no.: Peace and Friendship Treaties Nova Scotia Archives O/S No. 512

Signed at Chebucto (Kjipuktuk, now Halifax), 15 August 1749, by "Joannes Pedousaghtigh, Chief of the Tribe of Chignecto Indians" and "Deputies from the Chiefs of the St. Johns Indians," and witnessed by members of His Majesty's Council for Nova Scotia. The signing ceremony was held on board HMS Beaufort in Halifax Harbour, and the table used for the ceremony is now in the Legislative Council Chamber at Province House in Halifax.

This is an original document. It copies the wording of the 1725 Treaty, to which a renewal is appended at the end.

A reproduction was included in Thomas B. Akins, editor, Selections from the public documents of the Province of Nova Scotia (Halifax, 1869).

Transcript is from W. E. Daugherty, Maritime Indian treaties in historical perspective (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1981); Renewal of the Treaty of 1725 (Chebucto 1749) in their treaty series.


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Mikmaq201605005

1749 Ratification at St. John of the Chebucto Renewal of the Treaty of 1725
Date: 1749
Reference no.: Peace and Friendship Treaties Nova Scotia Archives O/S No. 512

Signed at "the river St Johns," 4 September 1749, by the Chief and representatives of the "River St Johns and places adjacent" and witnessed by members of His Majesty's Council for Nova Scotia.

This is an original document, written on the reverse of the 1749 Chebucto renewal of the Treaty of 1725.

A reproduction was included in Thomas B. Akins, editor, Selections from the public documents of the Province of Nova Scotia (Halifax, 1869).

Transcript is from W. E. Daugherty, Maritime Indian treaties in historical perspective (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1981); Renewal of the Treaty of 1725 (Chebucto 1749) in their treaty series.


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Mikmaq201606222

Printed Proclamation of the 1752 Treaty
Date: 1752
Reference no.: Peace and Friendship Treaties Nova Scotia Archives RG 1, Vol. 430, No. 2

Signed at Halifax, 22 November 1752, by "Thomas Hopson,…. Governor in Chief in and over His Majesty's Province of Nova Scotia and Major Jean Baptiste Cope, Chief Sachem of the Tribe of the MickMack Indians inhabiting the Eastern Coast…."

No original signed copies of this treaty are known to exist. At the time of signing, copies were written into the Executive Council records now held at the Nova Scotia Archives (RG 1, Vol. 209, p. 219; RG 1, Vol. 186, p.250; RG 1, Vol. 209, p.223). A transcribed copy was also sent to the Colonial Office in London, and can be found at the National Archives (London, UK) in the Colonial Office Papers, CO 217, Vol. 40, Item 209. The Nova Scotia Archives has an original copy of the printed proclamation issued in both English and French when the treaty was signed, and this is the document used in association with this treaty.

Transcript is from W. E. Daugherty, Maritime Indian treaties in historical perspective (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1981); Treaty of 1752 in their treaty series.


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Mikmaq201606233

True Copy of the 1754 Ratification by the Norridgewolk of the Treaty of 1725
Date: 1754
Reference no.: Peace and Friendship Treaties Nova Scotia Archives RG 1, Vol. 430, No. 5 (O/S No. 524)

Signed at Falmouth in Casco Bay (Maine), 2 July 1754, by the "chief men of the Norridgewalk" before William Shirley, Governor of Massachusetts Bay, Paul Mascarene, Commissioner from Nova Scotia, and Commissioners from the Province of New Hampshire.

This is a transcribed copy obtained by T.B. Akins in the 19th century and bound into RG 1, Vol. 430 of his collected documents at the Nova Scotia Archives.

Modern transcription is by the Nova Scotia Archives, based on comparison with records published in Nathaniel Bouton, compiler and editor, Provincial papers, documents and records relating to the Province of New Hampshire from 1749 to 1763 (New Hampshire Historical Society, Vol. 6, 1872).


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Mikmaq201606235

True Copy of the 1754 Ratification by the Penobscot of the Treaty of 1725
Date: 1754
Reference no.: Peace and Friendship Treaties Nova Scotia Archives RG 1, Vol. 430, No. 6 (O/S No. 525)

Signed at Falmouth in Casco Bay (Maine), 6 July 1754, by the "chief men of the Penobscot" before William Shirley, Governor of Massachusetts Bay, Paul Mascarene, Commissioner from Nova Scotia and Commissioners from the Province of New Hampshire.

This is a transcribed copy obtained by T.B. Akins in the 19th century and bound into RG 1, Vol. 430 of his collected documents at the Nova Scotia Archives.

Transcription published in Nathaniel Bouton, compiler and editor, Provincial papers, documents and records relating to the Province of New Hampshire from 1749 to 1763 (New Hampshire Historical Society, Vol. 6, 1872).


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Mikmaq201605008

Copy of Authenticated Copy of "Treaty of Peace and Friendship concluded by the Governor... of Nova Scotia with Paul Laurent, Chief of the La Heve tribe of Indians," 1760
Date: 1760
Reference no.: Peace and Friendship Treaties Nova Scotia Archives RG 1, Vol. 284, No. 17

Signed at Halifax, March 1760, by Governor Charles Lawrence and Paul Laurent, Chief of the La Heve [LaHave].

No original copies are known to exist for this, or for any of the other 1760 and 1761 treaties. This is a transcribed copy made for T.B. Akins in the 19th century and bound into RG 1, Vol. 284 of his collected documents at the Nova Scotia Archives. The source for this transcribed copy was a document collected by the Rev. Andrew Brown, minister at what is now St. Matthew's United Church in Halifax, 1787-1795, during which time the Rev. Mr. Brown collected and copied many documents as background for his planned history of North America. The documents, including a contemporaneous copy of this treaty, eventually became part of the Andrew Brown collection at the British Library in London (Ad MS 19071).

Transcription from the Supreme Court of Canada decision in the case of R. v Marshall [1999] 3 S.C.R. 456.


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Mikmaq201606298

Copy of "Treaty of Peace and Friendship" between Jonathon Belcher and Francis Muis, 1761
Date: 1761
Reference no.: Peace and Friendship Treaties Nova Scotia Archives RG 1, Vol. 430, No. 20a

Signed at Halifax, 9 November 1761, by Jonathan Belcher, President of His Majesty's Council and Francis Muis, Chief of the La Have and witnessed by "P. Maillard, Priest missionnary of indians."

No original copies are known to exist for this, or for any of the other 1760 and 1761 treaties. This is a copy made in 1812 by the Rev. Jean-Mandé Sigogne, who had access to an original document.


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Mikmaq201605012

"By the King, A Proclamation." 1763
Date: 1763
Reference no.: Peace and Friendship Treaties Nova Scotia Archives RG 1, Vol. 346, No. 2

Issued at the Court at St. James', 7 October 1763.

This is an original document published by the King's Printer, Robert Baskett, in London in 1763, for distribution to the colonies. This copy was received and published in Halifax in January 1764.

Transcript sourced from the Lillian Goldman Law Library, Yale Law School, and verified by the Nova Scotia Archives.


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Mikmaq201605019

Copy of Treaty of 1779 signed at Windsor between John Julien, Chief and Michael Francklin, representing the Government of Nova Scotia.
Date: 1779
Reference no.: Peace and Friendship Treaties Nova Scotia Archives O/S No. 516

Signed at Windsor, NS, 22 September 1779 by John Julien, Chief, and others representing the "Mirimichy", as well as representatives from the "Pogmousche, Restigouche... Richebouctou... and Jedyac," and others together representing those and "all others residing between Cape Tormentine and the Bay DeChaleurs," and Michael Francklin, the King's Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Nova Scotia.

The document was certified as a true copy by Francklin and enclosed in a packet of documents sent from Halifax on 10 October 1779 by Lieutenant Governor Richard Hughes to George Germain, Secretary of State for the American Department at the Colonial Office in London. The Nova Scotia Archives has a photostatic copy of this document, the original of which was received in London on 13 November 1779, and is now in the National Archives (London UK) in the Colonial Office Papers as CO 217, Vol. 54, Item 254.

Transcript is from W. E. Daugherty, Maritime Indian treaties in historical perspective (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1981); Treaty of 1761 (Merimichi tribe) in that publication.


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