Government of Nova Scotia Government of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia, Canada
Natural Resources and Renewables


Module 2: Harvesting Systems



advanced regeneration - seedlings that have become established naturally in a mature forest prior to any harvest

age class - any interval into which the age range of trees or stands is divided for classification and use - commonly 15 or 20 years artificial regeneration - establishing a new forest by planting seedlings or by spreading seed

bare root stock - seedlings whose roots are removed from soil in which they were grown prior to planting

blow down - trees uprooted by high winds, also commonly called wind throw

canopy - more or less continuous cover of branches formed by the crowns of trees

cavity trees - a tree greater than 30cm (12 inches) in diameter, which can have natural or excavated holes

co-dominant - those trees whose crowns form the general level of the canopy and receive full light from above, but comparatively little from the sides

container stock - seedlings whose roots are contained in the soil in which they were first planted

crown - the live branches and foliage of a tree

crown closure- the ground area covered by crown

deciduous - any plant that sheds all its leaves each year

density - concerning trees, the number of trees per unit area

diversity - variety and number of living organisms in a forest environment

dominant - trees with crowns extending above the general level of the canopy and receiving full light from above and from the side

ecosystem - an interrelated and interdependent community of living and non-living organisms and their habitats

edge - a zone where two successional stages meet

even-aged - a stand composed of trees with only small differences in age; by convention, the maximum age differences allowable is 10 - 20 years

erosion - washing or wearing away of soil

flush - a fresh growth of new leaves or needles

green belt - an uncut area along water or a road

habitat - a place where a plant or animal lives

high grading - the removal of only the best trees from a stand, often resulting in a poor quality remaining stand and poor seed for the next generation

intermediate - trees in a stand which receive a little light from above but none from the sides

intolerant - plants and trees that do not grow well in the shade

mature - having reached a state of maximum development; the stage before decline

mineral soil - soil containing a high percentage of inorganic material such as rock, sand, clay and silt

monoculture - a crop of a single species, generally even-aged

organic layer - layer of leaf, twig, and other litter on top of mineral soil; not yet incorporated into soil

pre-commercial thinning -spacing treatment done in young natural stands to remove competition from desired trees

raptor - a bird of prey; hawks, ospreys, and eagles are prime examples in Nova Scotia

reforestation - the natural or artificial restocking (ie: planting & seeding) of an area with forest trees

riparian zone - refers to a zone of vegetation usually next to water (see green belt)

selection cutting - an uneven-aged silvicultural system in which trees are harvested individually or in small groups at relatively short intervals

site preparation - preparation of a site for planting and for seedlings; should make site easier to plant and improve survival and growth of seedlings

shelterwood cut - the removal of the mature timber in a series of cuttings which extend over a relatively short period of the rotation; establishment of even-aged seedlings is encouraged under the partial shade of seed trees.

siltation - the washing of fine soil particles by water into waterways

silviculture - the growing and tending of forests to meet goals of landowner

slash - the residue left on the ground after harvesting, including unused wood, branches, and tree tops

snags - a standing dead or dying tree valuable to wildlife as a perch, or a source of insects

stand - group of trees sufficiently uniform is species, size, age and condition to be separable from another group

stocking - an expression of the percentage of a site occupied by trees

tolerance - the ability of a tree to survive and grow under shade

uneven-aged - stand of trees with considerable age differences representing at least three age classes ; uneven-aged stands usually contain large, older trees as well as young trees

viable seed - seed capable of germinating

weeding - removal or suppression of undesirable competition from young trees